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Muskellunge

Muskellunge

Characteristics

olive to dark gray above, sides lighter with dark spots or bars; upper 1/2 of cheeks and opercle lightly scaled, lower 1/2 of both scaleless; approximately 36 inches in length at age 5 in Iowa waters

Distribution

Muskellunge Distribution

has been stocked regularly into Brushy Creek, Hawthorn Lake, Pleasant Creek, Big Creek, Three Mile, Clear Lake, West Okoboji, and Big Spirit since 1996. Muskies can also be found in East Okoboji, Upper Gar, Lower Gar, and Lake Minnewashta due to their connection to West Okoboji. Muskies were also stocked in Lake Macbride in 1993, and some individuals are still being caught there.

Foods

mostly fish

State Record

50 pounds, 6 ounces - Spirit Lake, Dickinson County, September August 2000 - Kevin Cardwell, Spirit Lake, Iowa

Expert Tip

the musky has been called the fish of 10,000 casts, be patient and use BIG lures

Details

Prior to 1960, only a few muskellunge had been collected in Iowa fish surveys. Three were reported in the Mississippi River, one each near Lansing and Harpers Ferry in Allamakee County in 1935 and one in Muscatine County near Muscatine in 1892. Single specimens were collected from the Skunk River near Ames in Story County in 1892 and in Clear Lake in 1945. The latter was probably transplanted from the Mississippi River during fish rescue activities.

In 1960, the first purebred musky were stocked into Iowa waters. Fry were obtained from Wisconsin, reared at the Decorah trout hatchery, and 40 fish each were stocked into Clear Lake and West Lake Okoboji. The program has continued since that time with annual plantings of about 5,000 fish, 6 to 10 inches in length, into Clear Lake, West Lake Okoboji and Big Spirit Lake. Musky were also introduced into Big Creek Lake and Rathbun Lake in the 1970`s, but the practice was discontinued after two or three years in favor of hybrid musky.

The muskellunge differs from other pikes in having the upper half of the cheeks and opercles lightly scaled and the lower portion of these parts scaleless. The lower jaw has a row of 6 to 9 pores along each side. There are 16 to 19 branchiostegal rays, usually 19 rays in the dorsal fin, and 147 to 155 cycloid scales along the lateral line. The color of muskellunge varies considerably. It is usually olive to dark gray with dark over markings on the sides. When present, these markings will consist of dark spots or bars on a light background.

Muskellunge are strictly carnivorous. They feed primarily on other fishes such as perch, suckers and shiners. The first food of young muskellunge is zooplankton, but after a few days of life fish are consumed. It also feeds extensively on frogs, crayfish and large water insects and has been known to devour ducklings, shore birds and even young aquatic mammals. An aggressive feeder, large musky have been reported attacking human appendages dangled in the water, but these incidents are indeed rare and unusual, and perhaps more lore than factual.

Muskellunge spawn in early spring, several weeks later than northern pike. In northern states they ordinarily spawn in tributary streams and shallow lake channels rather than in flooded marshes and swamps preferred by northern pike. Like all members of the pike family, they simply scatter their eggs unattended over the bottom. The eggs are small, averaging about 75,000 to the quart. Incubation is completed in 12 to 15 days in water from 50 to 55 degrees F. A female -- 36 to 46 inches in length -- produces up to 164,000 eggs. The average range is from about 20,000 to 165,000 although female fish weighing 40 pounds have been known to produce as many as 225,000 eggs. Contrary to popular belief, these fish are not long-lived and usually die before reaching age 12. A recent age and growth study for musky conducted on West Lake Okoboji showed the growth averaged 12.8 inches at age 1, 35.7 inches at age 5, and 46.0 inches at age 11.

Some fishermen have termed musky the fish of 1,000 casts. Musky are world famous for their difficulty to hook and successfully land. Adjectives such as "exciting" and "super fantastic" are often used to describe the musky experience.

Only a few bodies of water in Iowa are suitable for the development and continuation of a successful musky program. The fishery, therefore, will remain very limited in our state, but where it is present it will continue to capture the very heart and soul of those fishermen purist looking for a truly memorable fishing experience.


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Present in these Iowa water bodies:

Lake/Stream County Location Acres/Length
Big Spirit Lake Dickinson 1m N Spirit Lake 5684.00
West Okoboji Lake Dickinson northwest edge of Arnolds Park 3847.00
Clear Lake Cerro Gordo south edge of Clear Lake 3684.00
Lake Macbride Johnson 4 miles West of Solon 889.00
Three Mile Lake Union 3 miles northwest of Afton 880.00
Big Creek Lake Polk 2 miles north of Polk City 814.00
Brushy Creek Lake Webster 5 miles east of Lehigh 690.00
Pleasant Creek Lake Linn 4 miles North of Palo 401.00
Lost Grove Lake Scott Six miles east of Eldridge 400.00

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