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White Bass

White Bass

Characteristics

slab-sided, blue gray to silvery spiny-rayed fish; dorsal, caudal and anal fins slate gray, pectoral fins and belly white; dorsal fin separated into two lobes; few attain weights greater than 2-3 pounds

Distribution

White Bass Distribution

Mississippi River and lower reaches of its tributaries, natural lakes in northeast Iowa

Foods

fish, insects, and crustaceans

State Record

3 pounds, 14 ounces - West Okoboji Lake, Dickinson County, May 1972 - Bill Born, Milford, Iowa

Expert Tip

try fishing white and/or yellow jigs (1/8 ounce) in tandem where you see the schools of white bass chasing minows to the surface

Details

The white bass is common to abundant throughout the Mississippi River and in the lower reaches of its main tributary streams. Sizable populations presently inhabit the flood control reservoirs that impound the interior rivers, Red Rock, Rathbun and Coralville, which has led to a dramatic increase in white bass abundance and distribution during the past several decades. Its range also includes the Missouri River and tributaries. This species is common in many natural lakes including: Storm, North Twin, Blackhawk, East and West Okoboji, Spirit, Minnewhasta, Upper and Lower Gar and Clear lakes.

Typical white bass habitat is the deep, quiet pools of medium to large rivers and the mid-water environment of lakes and reservoirs. They are most frequently found utilizing locations with sand and gravel bottoms in clear to slightly turbid water.

The white bass is a slab-sided, blue-gray to silvery, spiny-rayed fish with slate gray dorsal, caudal and anal fins, white belly and pectoral fins. It has 5 to 7 longitudinal dark colored body stripes. Stripes on the body are usually interrupted but not as sharply broken or offset above the anal fin as other fishes in this family. The dorsal fin is separated into two complete lobes; the first contains 9 spines and the second has a single spine with 13 to 15 soft rays. The anal fin is comprised of 3 spines graduating in length followed by 11 to 13 soft rays. The mouth is slightly oblique with the lower jaw projecting slightly beyond the upper jaw.

Spawning is a spring ritual that occurs in Iowa from April through mid-June at water temperatures ranging from 58 to 70 degrees F. Sexually mature fish form schools, often unisexual groups, that move onto shoals or estuaries prior to spawning. Actual spawning commences when several males surround a female and the group swims about scattering eggs and milt near the surface. The eggs are small, averaging about .031 inch in diameter. Fecundity varies from about 241,000 to 933,00 per mature adult female, with the number of eggs produced proportional to body size. Once released, the eggs are fertilized and gradually sink to the bottom where they adhere to rocks and bottom debris and hatch in several days. No parental care is given eggs or newly hatched fry.

Growth of white bass is rapid, averaging 4 to 6 inches in the first year, 9 to 10 inches in the second year, and 12 to 14 inches by the end of the third year. Most males mature at age II, while females mature at age III. White bass seldom live beyond 4 years and few attain a size larger than 2 or 3 pounds. The largest recorded by a fisherman in Iowa was 3 pounds, 14 ounces from West Lake Okoboji.

White bass habitually forage in early morning and late afternoon, while adults are sometimes observed feeding during darkness. Their food consists of insects, crustaceans and fish, with the latter making up the bulk of the adults diet. This species is highly mobile, moving about in large schools, voraciously feeding on other schooling fish, such as gizzard shad. In Iowa, the presence of gizzard shad is a requisite for establishment of white bass in reservoirs and large rivers. White bass utilize other forage fish, particularly minnows and shiners, in the natural lakes for food.


Return

Present in these Iowa water bodies:

Lake/Stream County Location Acres/Length
Red Rock Reservoir Marion 4 miles north of Knoxville 15250.00
Rathbun Reservoir Appanoose 8 miles northwest of Centerville 11000.00
Big Spirit Lake Dickinson 1m N Spirit Lake 5684.00
Coralville Reservoir Johnson 4 miles north of Iowa City 5280.00
Saylorville Reservoir Polk North edge of Des Moines 4970.00
West Okoboji Lake Dickinson northwest edge of Arnolds Park 3847.00
Storm Lake (incl Little Storm Lake) Buena Vista south edge of Storm Lake 3097.00
East Okoboji Lake Dickinson east edge of Okoboji 1835.00
Lost Island Lake Palo Alto 3 miles north of Ruthven 1162.00
Silver Lake (Dickinson) Dickinson west edge of Lake Park 1041.00
Lake Macbride Johnson 4 miles West of Solon 889.00
Big Creek Lake Polk 2 miles north of Polk City 814.00
DeSoto Bend Harrison 5 miles west of Missouri Valley 811.00
Pleasant Creek Lake Linn 4 miles North of Palo 401.00
Roberts Creek Lake Marion 6 miles northeast of Knoxville 288.00
Lake Cornelia Wright 3 1/2 miles north, 2 miles east of Clarion 243.00
Center Lake Dickinson 2 miles west, 1/2 miles south of Spirit Lake 220.00
Minnewashta Lake Dickinson 1/2 mile south of Arnolds Park 118.00
Sand Lake Marshall On the Northeast edge of Marshalltown 95.00
Prairie Park Fishery Linn 1.5 miles SSE of Cargill on Otis Road, along the Cedar River in Cedar Rapids 42.00
Yellow Smoke Park Lake Crawford 2 miles east, 2 miles north of Denison 40.00
Scharnberg Pond Clay 3m E Everly 10.00

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